45th Anniversary of Hurricane Celia

Hurricane Celia satellite picture at landfall.

Hurricane Celia satellite picture at landfall.

On the evening of August 3, 1970, Hurricane Celia made landfall near Corpus Christi, Texas.  Celia had formed from a tropical wave three days before in the Caribbean Sea.  After moving over the western tip of Cuba, the storm turned westward and underwent two cycles of rapid intensification, the last as it neared the Texas coast.  The flooding from rainfall in western Cuba cost five lives, and the waves generated by Celia caused erosion along Gulf Coast beaches as far away as Florida where eight people drowned.  But the major damage was caused by the hurricane’s winds in the Corpus Christi and Port Aransas area.  Winds at landfall were estimated at 125 mph (205 km/hr) with gusts estimated at 175 mph (280 km/hr).  Damage surveys showed most of the heaviest destruction was confined to narrow streaks on the south side of the storm, which rotated to the north side after the eye had passed the city.  Nearly 9000 homes were destroyed and another 45,000 damaged to some degree.  Over 200 business buildings were severely damages and over 300 boats demolished.  Some US$8 million in losses was suffered by agricultural interests, and the overall damage total has recently re-estimated at US$930 million (in 1970 $s). Celia lost strength only slowly as it moved inland, causing significant damage into southwestern Texas.  15 deaths in Texas were directly ascribed to this hurricane.

National Hurricane Research Laboratory scientists’ papers about Hurricane Celia:

NOAA G-IV conducts second and final operational synoptic surveillance mission around Tropical Storm Guillermo

NOAA’s G-IV jet aircraft is performing its second synoptic surveillance mission of the year, around weakening Tropical Storm Guillermo, which is threatening Hawaii.  The aircraft took off from Honolulu, HI, at about 1730 UTC, and will recover there about 7.5 h later.  No further missions are planned, and the G-IV should return to Florida tomorrow.2015080400_ep092015_N49track

Hurricane Field Program Update – Monday, August 3, 2015 11AM Eastern

Monday, 03 August 2015

G-IV: Is tasked for a second synoptic surveillance mission around Hurricane Guillermo. The aircraft will depart Honolulu, HI, at 1730 UTC and recover there about 7.5 h later.  No further synoptic surveillance missions are planned.

NOAA43: No missions are planned.

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For the latest information about tropical cyclones and other weather systems, please visit the NOAA/NWS/National Hurricane Center web site at http://www.nhc.noaa.gov or the Central Pacific Hurricane Center at http://www.prh.noaa.gov/hnl/cphc/.

To access updates on IFEX and other HRD activities via Facebook, Twitter, or RSS feed, check out the HRD home page at: http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd

To directly access updates on IFEX HFP Operations via our WordPress blog on the web, check the site https://noaahrd.wordpress.com/category/ifex-hurricane-field-program/

DISCLAIMER: The above discussion is intended to provide a brief summary of recent and future HRD Hurricane Field Program Operations. Any use of this material beyond its original intent is prohibited without permission of the HRD Director. Media inquiries should be directed to Erica Rule (305-361-4541) or Erica.Rule@noaa.gov, Evan Forde (305-361-4327) or Evan.Forde@noaa.gov, Monica Allen (301-734-1123) or Monica.Allen@noaa.gov.

Hurricane Field Program Update – Sunday, August 2, 2015 5PM Eastern

OPERATIONS

Sunday, 02 August 2015

G-IV: Is tasked for a synoptic surveillance mission around Hurricane Guillermo. The aircraft will depart Long Beach, CA, at 1730 UTC and recover in Honolulu about 7.5 h later.

NOAA43: No missions are planned

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For the latest information about tropical cyclones and other weather systems, please visit the NOAA/NWS/National Hurricane Center web site at http://www.nhc.noaa.gov or the Central Pacific Hurricane Center at http://www.prh.noaa.gov/hnl/cphc/.

To access updates on IFEX and other HRD activities via Facebook, Twitter, or RSS feed, check out the HRD home page at: http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd

To directly access updates on IFEX HFP Operations via our WordPress blog on the web, check the site https://noaahrd.wordpress.com/category/ifex-hurricane-field-program/

DISCLAIMER: The above discussion is intended to provide a brief summary of recent and future HRD Hurricane Field Program Operations. Any use of this material beyond its original intent is prohibited without permission of the HRD Director. Media inquiries should be directed to Erica Rule (305-361-4541) or Erica.Rule@noaa.gov, Evan Forde (305-361-4327) or Evan.Forde@noaa.gov, Monica Allen (301-734-1123) or Monica.Allen@noaa.gov.

NOAA G-IV flies first operational synoptic surveillance mission north of Hurricane Guillermo

NOAA’s G-IV jet aircraft is performing its first synoptic surveillance mission of the year, north of Hurricane Guillermo, which is threatening Hawaii.  The aircraft took off from Long Beach, CA, at about 1730 UTC, and will recover after the mission about 7.5 h later in Honolulu.  Further missions are planned until Guillermo is no longer a threat to the islands.

ftk

25th Anniversary of Tropical Cyclone Motion 1990 project

TCM-90 area of operations with rawindsonde sites and ship positions. (BAMS)

TCM-90 area of operations with rawindsonde sites and ship positions. (BAMS)

Starting on August 1, 1990, and running for the next twenty days, the Office of Naval Research, NASA, and international partners staged the Tropical Cyclone Motion 1990 (TCM-90) project.    Located in the western Pacific, researchers from the United States, Soviet Union, Australia, Hong Kong, South Korea, Malaysia, Thailand, and the Philippines sought to improve the forecasting of tropical cyclone motion using ships, satellites, and NASA’s DC-8.

Papers written about TCM-90

Russell L. Elsberry, 1990: International Experiments to Study Tropical Cyclones in the Western North Pacific. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 71, 1305–1316.

David W. Titley and Russell L. Elsberry, 2000: Large Intensity Changes in Tropical Cyclones: A Case Study of Supertyphoon Flo during TCM-90. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128, 3556–3573.

Paul H. Dobos, Richard J. Lind, and Russell L. Elsberry, 1995: Surface Wind Comparisons with Radar Wind Profiler Observations near Tropical Cyclones. Wea. Forecasting, 10, 564–575.

300th Anniversary of Spanish Silver Fleet’s fatal encounter with a hurricane

Foundering ship (U.S. Park Service)

Foundering ship (U.S. Park Service)

Early on the morning of July 31, 1715, a Spanish treasure fleet was caught by a severe hurricane while exiting the Bahama Channel.  Eleven ships of the fleet were either sunk or foundered upon reefs along the Florida coast.

With end of the War of Spanish Succession in 1714, the Spanish Crown was in desperate need of funds.  No major shipment of goods from Spain’s New World colonies had been undertaken during the War, so a fleet of galleons was organized to visit various ports of call around the Spanish Main to gather both Royal and private treasure to be shipped to Cadiz.  Since the majority of the goods consisted of silver coins and bullion, the venture was dubbed the Spanish Plata (Silver) Fleet.  Due to numerous delays, the fleet of twelve ships didn’t leave Havana harbor until July 27, 1715, well into hurricane season.

The voyage began with fair weather, but once they turned north into the Bahama Channel the ships encountered contrary northeasterly winds.  As the winds strengthened, the fleet was forced to a crawl as it tacked into the wind in the narrow Channel.  A French ship, the Grifon, which was forced by security concerns to sail with the fleet, made good time and broke with the fleet to speed ahead to a rendezvous point off the Carolinas.  But the heavy-laden Spanish ships were left to lumber on, and they began to experience the signs of an on-coming hurricane.  But Captain General Don Juan Esteban de Ubilla found himself trapped between the uninhabited, reef-strewn Florida shore to his west and the shallow, English pirate-strewn  Bahama Bank to his east and had no choice but to try to clear the Channel before the worst of the storm struck.

It was a race he lost and the hurricane overtook the fleet just as it emerged from the Channel.  Three ships were sunk in deep water, the other eight were driven onto the Florida coast from present-day Fort Pierce to Wabasso (north of Vero Beach) where they wrecked upon rocks and reefs.  Of the 2500 sailors and passengers, 1000 perished in the storm including Ubilla.  The rest struggled for survival on an inhospitable coast.  Two boats were salvaged from the wrecks and were sent for help, one to St. Augustine the other back to Havana.  Most of the survivors were rescued and salvage operations were begun almost immediately.  Meanwhile, the Grifon made Brest, France by September 2nd, unaware of the fate of the rest of the fleet.

Wreck sites and salvage camps locations

Wreck sites and salvage camps locations

Much of the treasure was recovered and shipped on to Spain.  But word of the disaster reached English ears, and privateer Henry Jennings carried out a daring raid on the Spanish salvage camps claiming what treasure they had stored for shipment home.  Eventually, the Spanish abandoned salvage operations and English opportunists occupied their camps to claim what was left in the wrecks.  When the pickings became slim, even the English left the site.

Recovered cannon (1715 Fleet Society)

Recovered cannon (1715 Fleet Society)

Memory of the wrecks eventually fell from common knowledge.  It wasn’t until the early 1940s that amateur archeologist Charles Higgs discovered evidence of the salvage camps in the dunes near the Sebastian Inlet.  Later work by the Florida Park Service associated the camps with the Silver Fleet wrecks.  A passing hurricane in 1955 washed away some of the dunes around the camps revealing many artifacts and silver coins.  This touched off renewed salvage efforts by local builder Kip Wagner and his Real 8 Company.  They eventually recovered thousands of coins and pieces of jewelery and a number of cannon.  The discovery led to the establishment of a state park and museum and to the area being dubbed The Treasure Coast.

References

“Two Archeological Sites in Brevard County, Florida” – The Higgs Site (Br 1) by Hale G. Smith, Florida Anthropological Society Publications, U. of Fla., Gainesville 1949.
“The Spanish Camp Site and the 1715 Plate Fleet Wreck” Marion Clayton Link, Tequesta magazine, vol. 26, 1966, pp.21-30

“Pieces of Eight, Recovering the Riches of a Lost Spanish Treasure Fleet”, by Kip Wagner as told to L.B. Taylor, Jr., E.P. Dutton & Co., Inc. New York 1966.

“Florida’s Golden Galleons; The Search for the 1715 Spanish Treasure Fleet”, by Robert F. Burgess and Carl J. Clausen, Florida Classics Library, Port Salerno, Florida 1982.

“Gold, Galleons, and Archaeology”, by Robert F. Burgess and Carl J. Clausen, Florida Classics Library, Port Salerno, Florida 1976.

“Drowned Galleons Yield Spanish Gold”, by Kip Wagner, National Geographic Magazine, January 1965.

Joe Cione earns Department of Commerce Silver Medal

josephjcioneCongratulations to Joe Cione, part of the team to earn a Department of Commerce Silver Medal “for successfully executing the first-ever launch of an Unmanned Aircraft System from a manned aircraft into a major hurricane, Hurricane Edouard.”  The entire team includes AOML’s Erica Rule, as well as crew members from NOAA’s Office of Marine and Aviation Operations CDR Nancy Hann, CDR Kristie Twining, LCDR Justin Kibbey, James Roles, Jeff Smith, Steven Paul, Andrew Hornbeck, Joseph Bosko.  Congratulations to everyone!